Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols which offer communication security over the Internet. They use asymmetric cryptography for authentication of key exchange, symmetric encryption for confidentiality and message authentication codes for message integrity. Several versions of the protocols are in widespread use in applications such as web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and voice-over-IP (VoIP).
In the TCP/IP model view, TLS and SSL encrypt the data of network connections at a lower sub layer of its application layer. In OSI model equivalences, TLS/SSL is initialized at layer 5 (the session layer) then works at layer 6 (the presentation layer): first the session layer has a handshake using an asymmetric cipher in order to establish cipher background and a shared key for that session; then the presentation layer encrypts the rest of the communication using a symmetric cipher and that session key. In both models, TLS and SSL work on behalf of the underlying transport layer, whose segments carry encrypted data.
TLS is an IETF standards track protocol, primarily defined in 1999 and last updated in RFC 5246 (August 2008) and RFC 6176 (March 2011). It is founded on the earlier SSL specifications (1994, 1995, 1996) developed by Netscape Communications for adding the HTTPS protocol to their Navigator web browser.
From the application protocol angle, TLS belongs to a lower layer, even though the TCP/IP model is too coarse to show it. This means that the TLS handshake is usually performed before the application protocol can start. The name-based virtual server feature being provided by the application layer, all co-hosted virtual servers share the same certificate because the server has to select and send a certificate immediately after the Client Hello message. This is a big problem in hosting environments because it means either sharing the same certificate between all customers or using a different IP address for each of them.
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